gailan – (Cantonese) leafy green vegetable. Also known as “Chinese broccoli” or “Chinese kale”

galangal – rhizome (root) from the ginger family, often used in Thai cooking

galette – (French) flat, round, sweet or savoury cake or pancake. A Breton galette is a pancake made with buckwheat flour, usually with a savoury filling.

gallimaufry – ragout, originally any kind of hotchpotch, potpourri, or jumble of things

Gamay – red grape variety, commonly used in Beaujolais wine

ganache – cake topping or filling made from couverture (chocolate) and double cream

garam masala – (Hindi: “hot spice mix”) spice mixture which originated in Northern India

garlic – one of the allium family, as is the onion. Used to flavour many Mediterranean and Asian dishes.

gastrique – (French: “gastric”) caramelised sugar deglazed with vinegar, used as a flavouring for sauces.

gazpacho – Spanish cold thick broth of tomatoes, garlic, onion etc

gelatine – colourless, tasteless and odourless setting agent made from the boiled bones, skins and tendons of animals

gelato – (Italian) ice cream

Gewürztraminer – white grape variety common in Alsatian wines

ghee – (Hindi) clarified butter often used in Indian cooking

gin – distilled spirit flavoured with juniper

ginger – flowering plant of which the rhizome (root) is widely used as a spice

girolle – meaty, yellow, funnel-shaped mushroom, similar to chanterelles but usually picked smaller

glacé – (French) iced or glazed

glaze – to create a glossy surface on food to avoid discolouration and to improve its appearance

globe artichoke – bud of a large member of the thistle family. The heart and the tender ends of the leaves are edible. (The Jerusalem artichoke is unrelated.)

gluten – the protein in wheat which allows the flour of yeast-raised baking to keep its shape when rising. Kneading is often used to promote this effect.

gnocchi – (Italian: “knuckles”) small Italian dumplings (often made from potato) cooked in boiling water and served with sauce

gochujang – (Korean) a savoury, spicy and pungent fermented condiment made from red chilli, glutinous rice, fermented soybeans and salt.

gosht – originally a Persian word for meat. Several other Asian languages have adopted the word.

goji berries – bright red berries, often hailed as a ‘super food’ because of their nutritional content.

goose – waterfowl, traditional at Christmas in the UK instead of turkey

gooseberry – large green berry, related to the blackcurrant

Gorgonzola – cow’s milk cheese with blue veins, originally from the Milan area

gougère – (French) ring of choux pastry with savoury filling, often cheese

goulash – (Hungarian: gulyás – “cowherd”) soup or stew of meat and vegetables, seasoned with paprika and other spices

grana – (Italian) a class of hard cheese

grape – berry fruit that can be eaten unprocessed, also used in the production of wine

grapefruit – large citrus fruit, like an orange but more tart

grate – to reduce solid food into threads or powder by rubbing it over the surface of a grater or zester

gratin or au gratin – (French) dish which is topped by a browned crust, could be achieved by breadcrumbs or cheese browned under a grill

gravlax or gravadlax – Nordic dish of raw salmon cured in sugar, salt, pepper and dill

gravy – thickened sauce made from meat and/or vegetable juices

Greek salad – salad consisting of tomatoes, cucumber, olives and feta cheese

gremolata – (Italian) mixture of parsley, garlic and lemon zest, used to garnish osso bucco

Grenache – red grape variety, often used to make rosé wine

gribiche – (French) sauce of mayonnaise, capers, gherkins, herbs and hard-boiled egg whites

grill – to cook or brown food quickly using the intense heat of an electric element or gas flame

griottines – morello cherries macerated in kirsch or other alcohol

grissini – (Italian) bread sticks

grouse – highly prized game bird

Gruyère – nutty-flavoured traditional Swiss cheese

guacamole – traditional Mexican spicy dip made from avocados

guinea fowl – small domesticated fowl with a slightly gamey taste

gurnard – small, round sea fish, white-fleshed but rather bony

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